DescriptionThe recent trend in the field of quantum computers has confirmed that it is only a matter of time before these computer systems become functional and readily available. Quantum computers hold the promise of a significant computational power increase. These computer systems will be able to efficiently compute solutions for many computational problems that are NP-hard on conventional machines. While this development presents many compute opportunities, it also deepens our current cybersecurity crisis by making many classical cryptosystems non-secure or critically weakened. For instance, with quantum algorithms capable of efficiently solving the integer factorization and discrete logarithm problems, RSA, ECC, and ElGamal will all need to be re-examined and strengthened since these computational problems form the core of their security. First, we will present a brief history and evolution of quantum computing and computers. Next, we will introduce a set of highly-optimized, parameterizable hardware modules to serve as post-quantum primitives for faster design space exploration of post-quantum cryptosystems, especially cryptosystems using Ring-LWE algorithms. This post-quantum primitive set consists of the four frequently-used security components: the public key cryptosystem (PKC), key exchange (KEX), oblivious transfer (OT), and zero-knowledge proof (ZKP). The OT is used in many privacy-preserving applications, e.g., DNA database and machine learning. Similarly, ZKP is used in several applications; for example, it has been proposed as a candidate for next-generation blockchain algorithms. These primitives will serve as the fundamental building blocks for constructing secure systems in the post-quantum era.